[11], In 1953, he first met Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Marie Curie's son-in-law, and in 1957 Diop began specializing in nuclear physics at the Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry of the College de France which Frederic Joliot-Curie ran until his death in 1958, and the Institut Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. Diop, Cheik Anta, translated by Mercer Cook (1974). Obenga, Théophile. By 1962 Diop's party working on the ideas enumerated in Black Africa: the economic and cultural basis for a federated state became a serious threat to the regime of then President Léopold Senghor. Diop, inspired by the efforts of Aimé Césaire toward these ends, but not being a literary man himself, took up the call to rebuild the African personality from a strictly scientific, socio-historical perspective. Thierno Diop (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar) Mbemba Jabbi (Université du Texas) Abdoulaye Kane (Université de Floride) Muhammadu MO Kah (Université américaine du Nigéria et Université de Gambie) Alpha Amadou Barry Bano (Université de Sonfonia) Yacouba Banhoro (Université de Ouaga 1 Joseph Ki-Zerbo) Dialo Diop (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar) Rahmane Idrissa (Centre d'ét Cheikh Anta Diop University - 20 min walk; Soumbédioune Fish Market - 20 min walk; Iba Mar Diop Stadium - 22 min walk; Dakar Grand Mosque - 25 min walk; Monument du Millénaire - 28 min walk; African Remembrance Square - 32 min walk; Ile de Goree Beach - 2.8 mi / 4.5 km; Museum of Black Civilizations - 2.4 mi / 3.8 km ; More about the area. Coon used racial rankings of inferiority and superiority, defined "true Blacks" as only those of cultures south of the Sahara, and grouped some Africans with advanced cultures with Caucasian clusters. Diop insisted on a broad interpretation similar to that used in classifying European populations as white. He alleged his critics were using the narrowest possible definition of "Blacks" in order to differentiate various African groups such as Nubians into a European or Caucasoid racial zone. Diop's view that the scholarship of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century was based on a racist view of Africans was regarded as controversial when he wrote in the 1950s through to the early 1970s, the field of African scholarship still being influenced by Carleton S. Coon and others. Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923 – 7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre- colonial African culture. Diop never asserted, as some claim, that all of Africa follows an Egyptian cultural model. Dies machte ihn zu einem der umstrittensten Historiker seiner Zeit. His cultural theory attempted to show that Egypt was part of the African environment as opposed to incorporating it into Mediterranean or Middle Eastern venues. Just as the inhabitants of Scandinavia and the Mediterranean countries must be considered as two extreme poles of the same anthropological reality, so should the Negroes of East and West Africa be considered as the two extremes in the reality of the Negro world. Diop focuses on Africa, not Greece. Diops Leben und Wirken ist das Thema des Dokumentarfilms Kemtiyu. One of Diop's most controversial issues centers on the definition of who is a true Black person. J. D. Walker, "The Misrepresentation of Diop's Views". Demba Sy, Papa, "L'itinéraire Politique de Cheikh Anta Diop". It's free! He established and was the director of the radiocarbon laboratory at the IFAN (Institut Fondamental de l'Afrique Noire). (2006), This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 08:14. As regards Egyptian religion for example, there appear to be more solid connections with the cultures of the Sudan and northeast Africa than Mesopotamia, according to mainstream research:[67], Diop considered that it was politically important to demonstrate the cultural and linguistic unity of Africa, and to base this unity on the Egyptian past. In 1951 he registered a second thesis title "Who were the pre-dynastic Egyptians" under Professor Marcel Griaule. Barbujani, et al., "Patterns of Human Diversity, within and among Continents, Inferred from Biallelic DNA Polymorphisms". [40], Diop argued that there was a shared cultural continuity across African peoples that was more important than the varied development of different ethnic groups shown by differences among languages and cultures over time.[3]. [5][6], Diop's works have been criticized as revisionist and pseudohistorical. 13 talking about this. The party was shortly thereafter banned for opposing Senghor's efforts to consolidate power in his own hands. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Cheikh Anta Diop sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Cheikh Anta Diop is the author of The African Origin of Civilization, Civilization or Barbarism, and Precolonial Black Africa. He declared that the peoples of the region were all Africans, and decried the "bizarre and dangerous myths" of previously biased scholarship, "marred by a confusion of race, language, and culture and by an accompanying racism. Mehr lesen. However, from the 1930s archaeologists and historians re-discovered such past African achievements as Great Zimbabwe, and from the 1940s linguists started to demonstrate the flaws in the hypothesis. Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo. that when the data are looked at in toto, without the clustering manipulation and selective exclusions above, then a more accurate and realistic picture emerges of African diversity. It concludes with a lengthy interview with Diop. I am fortunate enough to say I knew Cheikh Anta Diop as friend, colleague and master teacher. His research has become under-regarded because he did not accept this academic discipline. [75] He did not subdivide what he termed the langues négro-africaines into subgroups or suggest a family-tree for them, but implicitly rejected the language relations proposed by earlier linguists from Meinhof to Greenberg, who are not mentioned in his bibliography. Ndigi, Oum (1997–1998), "Les Basa du Cameroun et l'antiquité pharaonique égypto-nubienne". He held that this was both hypocrisy and bad scholarship, that ignored the wide range of indigenous variability of African peoples. He holds that the range of peoples and phenotypes under the designation "negre" included those with a wide range of physical variability, from light brown skin and aquiline noses to jet black skin and frizzy hair, well within the diversity of peoples of the Nilotic region. Brown and George J. Armelagos, "Apportionment of Racial Diversity: A Review", 2001. The first, "Le Bloc des Masses Sénégalaises" (BMS), was formed in 1961. Laut Anta Diop wären die afrikanischen Kulturen durch die Kolonialisierung und den Sklavenhandel nach und nach zerstört worden. 97–8. [33] His forceful assertions that the original population of the Nile Delta was black and that Egyptians remained black-skinned until Egypt lost its independence, "was criticized by many participants". He proposed that a single African language be used across the continent for official, educational, and cultural purposes. However such conceptions are inconsistently applied when it comes to African peoples, where typically, a "true negro" is identified and defined as narrowly as possible, but no similar attempt is made to define a "true white". 89–90. Studies of some inhabitants of Gurna, a population with an ancient cultural history, in Upper Egypt, illustrate the point. There are common patterns such as circumcision, matriarchy etc., but whether these are part of a unique, gentler, more positive "Southern cradle" of peoples, versus a more grasping, patriarchal-flavored "Northern cradle" are considered problematic[weasel words] by many scholars,[who?] [101] Since he struggled against how racial classifications were used by the European academy in relation to African peoples, much of his work has a strong 'race-flavored' tint. [17][18], Diop had since his early days in Paris been politically active in the Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (RDA), an African nationalist organisation led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny. Perhaps Diop's most notable idea is his insistence in placing Nile Valley peoples in their local and African context, drawing a picture of a stable, ancient population deriving much of its genetic inheritance from that context, as opposed to attempts to split, cluster, subdivide, define and regroup them into other contexts. Die Université Cheikh Anta Diop ist eine Hochschule in Dakar. Februar 1986 in Dakar). Obenga, Théophile. 65–92. Facebook gives people the power to share … It is these relationships which have played a role in history. See S.O.Y. Idea of peace, justice, goodness and optimism. Youths have to act! [98] Diop by contrast in his African Origin of Civilization,[99] argues against the European stereotypical conception. Such tropical elements were thus in place from the earliest beginnings of Egyptian civilization, not isolated somewhere South behind the Saharan barrier. Though Diop is sometimes referred to as an Afrocentrist, he predates the concept and thus was not himself an Afrocentric scholar. Under the "true negro" approach, Diop contended that those peoples who did not meet the stereotypical classification were attributed to mixture with outside peoples, or were split off and assigned to Caucasoid clusters. [3], Diop's work has posed questions about cultural bias in scientific research. biological] mixture of the ancient Egyptian population, but nobody has yet defined what is meant by the term 'Negroid', nor has any explanation been proffered as to how this Negroid element, by mingling with a Mediterranean component often present in smaller proportions, could be assimilated into a purely Caucasoid race. [83] Obenga expressly rejected Greenberg's division of most African languages into the Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic families, treating all African languages except the Khoisan languages and Berber as a single unit, négro-africain. Literature emphasizes novel tales, fables and comedy. (1975). Before Diop, the general view, following Charles Seligman[60] on the influence of Egypt on Black Africa was that elements of Egyptian religious thought, customs and technology diffused along four trade routes: up the White Nile; along the North African coast past Tunis to West Africa; up the Blue Nile and along the foothills of Abyssinia to the Great Lakes and through Darfur and along the southern edge of the Sahara. Cheikh Anta Diop was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and scholar of Afrocentricity. 105 connections. as one localized Nile valley population. This modern research also confirms older analyses, (Arkell and Ucko 1956, Shaw 1976, Falkenburger 1947, Strouhal 1971, Blanc 1964, et al.,[112]). The special edition of the journal was on the occasion of the centenary of the abolition of slavery in the French colonies and aimed to present an overview of issues in contemporary African culture and society. 30 Jahre später zeichnet KEMTIYU ein Portrait Cheikh Anta Diops: Bahnbrechender Wissenschaftler mit unersättlichem Wissensdurst und aufrichtige und hellsichtige politische Führungspersönlichkeit, von einigen verehrt, von anderen verschrien, und den meisten unbekannt. [113] Santiago Juan-Navarro a professor at Florida International University has described Diop as having "undertaken the task of supporting this Afrocentric view of history from an equally radical and 'mythic' point of view". All these factors combined, based on the formation of a federated and unified Africa, culturally and otherwise, are surmised to be the only way for Africa to become the power in the world that she should rightfully be. Selectively lumping such peoples into arbitrary Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Caucasoid categories because they do not meet the narrow definition of a "true" type, or selectively defining certain traits like aquiline features as Eurasian or Caucasoid, ignores the complexity of the DNA data on the ground. Your colleagues, classmates, and 500 million other professionals are on LinkedIn. "[14], In 1948 Diop edited with Madeleine Rousseau, a professor of art history, a special edition of the journal Musée vivant, published by the Association populaire des amis des musées (APAM). This approach is associated with scholars who question the validity of race as a biological concept. [66], Analyses of other scholars (Hiernaux 1975, Keita, 1990 et al.) [71] Greenberg's complete reclassification of the non-intrusive languages of Africa into four families and many sub-families placed Wolof in the West Atlantic sub-family of the Niger-Congo languages family,[72][73] and he rejected earlier attempts to argue that the languages of negro Africa comprise a genetic unity and derived from dialects spoken around Egypt from 1000 B.C. He obtained his doctorate in 1960. This symposium generated a lively debate about, but no consensus on, Diop's theories. And this appearance corresponds to something which makes us say that Europe is peopled by white people, Africa is peopled by black people, and Asia is people by yellow people. Diop's own Wolof studies were examined by Russell Schuh, a specialist in the Chadic languages, who found little resemblance or connection between many of the Wolof etymologies cited by Diop and Egyptian, of the type that are found when comparing Wolof to a known related language like Fula. Senegalese politician, historian and scientist (1923-1986), Critique of previous scholarship on Africa, Physical variability of the African people, Cultural unity of African peoples as part of a southern cradle, Diop's thought and criticism of modern racial clustering, Diop and the arbitrary sorting of categories, Diop and criticism of the Saharan barrier thesis, Diop and criticism of true Negro classification schemes, Diop and criticism of mixed-race theories, Molefi Kete Asante, "Cheikh Anta Diop: An Intellectual Portrait" (Univ of Sankore Press: December 30, 2007). "[27], Diop published his technique and methodology for a melanin dosage test in the Bulletin of Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire. They consider the Egyptians as (a) simply another Nile valley population or (b) part of a continuum of population gradation or variation among humans that is based on indigenous development, rather than using racial clusters or the concept of admixtures. Quoted in Shomarka Keita, "Communications". Greenberg, Joseph H. (1949), "Studies in African Linguistic Classification: I. Die Debatte zwischen Cheikh Anta Diop und seinen damaligen Kontrahenten wird mittlerweile in der Black-Athena-Debatte über die umstrittenen Thesen des britischen Historikers Martin Bernals weitergeführt, der einen Einfluss Ägyptens auf die Kultur des Griechenlands der klassischen Antike festgestellt haben will. Cheikh Anta Diop was imprisoned at least twice in his homeland as his political views were considered too radical. [43], But it is only the most gratuitous theory that considers the Dinka, the Nouer and the Masai, among others, to be Caucasoids. Dezember 1923 in Théytou, in der Region Diourbel (Senegal); † 1986 in Dakar) war einer der bekanntesten Ägyptologen des afrikanischen Kontinents. [90] Tourneux's main criticisms are that many words in the lists used to make comparisons may have been loaned from unrelated languages (including modern Arabic), many of the claimed resemblances are far-fetched and that, when Diop transliterated Wolof words on the principles applied to Ancient Egyptian writings, he distorted them.[91]. 49–54. [57] Some modern studies use DNA to define racial classifications, while others condemn this practice as selective filling of pre-defined, stereotypical categories.[58]. Arbitrarily classifying Maasai, Ethiopians, Shillouk, Nubians, etc., as Caucasian is thus problematic, since all these peoples are northeast African populations and show normal variation well within the 85–90% specified by DNA analysis. But what counts in reality is the phenotype. He did not believe that such a population needed to be arbitrarily split into tribal or racial clusters. Lam, Aboubacry Moussa. [9], Born in Thieytou, Diourbel Region, Senegal, Diop was born to an aristocratic Muslim Lebu family in Senegal where he was educated in a traditional Islamic school. Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. Modern linguistic analysis places the origin of the Afro-Asiatic languages in northeast Africa, and plausibly puts the origin of the Egyptian language in the Nile valley, between the apex of the Delta and the First of the Cataracts of the Nile.[94]. For example, ancient Egyptian matches with Indians and Europeans are generic in nature (due to the broad categories used for matching purposes with these populations) and are not due to gene flow. Diop contributed an article to the journal: "Quand pourra-t-on parler d'une renaissance africaine" (When we will be able to speak of an African Renaissance?).