He was the child of a noble family who had fallen on hard times. Nicolas Poussin Biography Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. A short biography of Nicolas Poussin : key dates • 1594 : Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France) • 1624 : Arrives in Rome, 1st significant order for Saint-Pierre. This date represents a turning point: Poussin abandons the search for public orders and their large compositions for Roman churches and palaces to concentrate on medium-sized canvases for a group of very prudent collectors. Biography of Nicolas Poussin. 1642 Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who founded the French Classical tradition. At the end of the 1640s, the landscape becomes the indifferent location of the ephemeral destiny of man (The Funeral of Phocion), rigorously constructed upon an intellectual mode, in opposition with the misfortunes of human destinies. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665): Biography of Classical Baroque Painter, Noted for Allegorical Paintings like Rape of the Sabine Women (Louvre) Nicolas Poussin Biography of French Classical Baroque Painter. Nicolas Poussin was born in Les Andelys on June 15, 1594 and showed a talent for drawing early on. Nicolas Poussin [pu'sɛ̃] (* 15. Nicolas Poussin was a French artist known for his paintings and drawings of Arcadian landscapes and historic narratives. Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. Deciding to concentrate instead on easel pictures of increasing subtlety and refinement, Poussin devoted much of his art of the late 1620s to romantic mythologies inspired by Titian and his fellow Venetians. Nicolas Poussin, né au hameau de Villers, commune des Andelys, en juin 1594, mort à Rome le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVII e siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural. Il suit des études probablement dans une école élémentaire puis dans un c… Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Peintre d'histoire, compositions religieuses, mythologiques, à personnages, paysages animés. During this time, he meets his first patron, Italian Giambattista Marino, known in France as the “Cavalier Marin”, poet to Marie de Medici, who commissions him to do a suite of drawings illustrating Ovid’s Metamorphoses. This talent was encouraged by the itinerant painter Quentin Varin, who visited Les Andelys in 1611–12 and became Poussin’s first teacher. En témoigne l’immense littérature qui lui a été consacrée depuis le 17e siècle. Though his reputation was eclipsed in the first half of the 18th century, it enjoyed a spectacular revival later that century in the Neoclassical art of Jacques-Louis David and his followers and has remained high ever since. Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who … He seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible. Dictionnaire biographique des célébrités et personnages historiques. Professor of Fine Art; Director, The Barber Institute of Fine Arts, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, West Midlands, England. Serenity and simplicity are found in his figured scenes, eliminating almost all picturesque detail. Landscapes give new impetus to his creations. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). About 1627 Poussin became acquainted with the scholar, antiquarian, and collector Cassiano dal Pozzo, who was destined to become his chief Italian patron and one of his closest friends. • 1665 : Dies in Rome. Depuis 1624, actif aussi en Italie. Toward the end of his life, Poussin’s art underwent a further transformation as he diversified to depict landscapes and a group of profoundly pantheistic allegorical works that were ultimately concerned with the order and harmony of nature. Nicolas Poussin was a highly skilled draughtsman who produced endless numbers of study drawings in preparation for his complex painted compositions. Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. Destitute, Poussin executed a large number of biblical and mythological paintings in the hope of finding buyers. The original family name was Lavallée, a name of French origin. Many of these works depict the Holy Family, a purely contemplative theme ideally suited to the serenity of his art during that phase. A period when, with access to the royal library, he studies the engraved prints of Raphael and Giulio Romano, statuary and antique patterns and the décor of the Second School of Fontainebleau, drawing on stylistic elements. We do not know much about Poussin up until his thirties. Landscape remains his favoured mode of expression, but his style changes once again. Nicolas Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy where he began his study of art. Nicolas Poussin was a famous French painter and draftsman who became a central figure of the Roman and European art in the seventeenth century. Following an illness and a wedding, Poussin abandons the large compositions of public orders to concentrate on medium-sized canvases for his group of very prudent collectors > The Empire of Flora, The rape of the Sabine Women, The Manna, 1st set of Seven Sacraments The Four Seasons (painted between 1660 and 1664 for the Duke of Richelieu) constitute the synthesis of his late style: in a setting emphasising the beauty of nature, the theme of the succession of the season merges with that of hours, periods of human life; the biblical narrative combines with classical mythology in a synthesis between Christianity and paganism. • 1624 : Arrives in Rome, 1st significant order for Saint-Pierre. The Notre-Dame painting, The Death of the Virgin (1623), went missing following the French Revolution and was known until the 21st century only by a preparatory drawing. Peintre d'histoire, compositions religieuses, mythologiques, à personnages, ou encore de paysages animés. Born in or near the town of Les Andelys in Normandy, Poussin received an education in Latin and letters, but early on he showed an inclination for drawing. He later went on to Paris, where he worked under minor artists who painted in a style that combined the Mannerism of the Second School of Fountainbleau with certain aspects of Italian baroque art. Nicolas Poussin was born in the town of Les Andelys in Normandy in June, 1594. Her brother, Gaspard Dughet, eventually became one of the foremost landscape painters of 17th-century Rome and took the surname Poussin from his more-illustrious brother-in-law. Poussin departs for Rome under the pretence of going to find his wife. Nicolas Poussin, né le 15 juin 1594 et mort le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, représentant de la peinture française classique. View Nicolas Poussin’s 604 artworks on artnet. 1611 • 1650-1665 : The landscape is taking a dominant place in his last compositions, where nature takes on a new character: no longer orderly and subject to the laws of reason but wild, invading the painting where man occupies an increasingly negligible space > The Four Seasons – synthesis of his late style, Landscape with Diana and Orion Huile sur toile, 80 × 87,5 cm, Dulwich Picture Gallery, Londres. 1594, Les Andelys, d. 1665, Roma) in the Web Gallery of Art, a searchable image collection and database of European painting, sculpture and architecture (200-1900) A French classical painter, Nicolas Poussin has been an inspiration for countless number of great artists since the 17th century. His father served in a senior position under Karl IX and Henry of Navarra. MAIN A-Z INDEX - A-Z of ARTISTS. Biography; Nicolas Poussin Nicolas Poussin. Arrives in Rome, after having spent several months in Venice. November 1665 in Rom) war ein französischer Maler des klassizistischen Barocks. Poussin’s artistic mastery is really revealed in The Empire of Flora, a complex composition painted 1631. Poussin’s altarpiece did not meet with critical acclaim, however, and it effectively helped to end his career as a public painter in Rome. In Paris, most likely working at the studio of Nancy-born Georges Lallemant. Corrections? 1640 Choosing subjects which allow him to stage large historic scenes, notably from the Old Testament, he balances his compositions more, i.e. L'un des plus grands maîtres classiques de la peinture française, génie européen, comme le rappelle l'exposition Nicolas Poussin de 1994 à Paris, à l'occasion de la célébratio… The artist executed the majority of his canvases in this intensely idealized style. • 1642 : Returns to Rome (he does not leave the city again) Author of. The French Baroquepainter Quentin Varin came across his work whilst passing through Poussin's town and encouraged him to go into p… 1665 (November) His family was essentially impoverished nobility: his father, Jean Poussin, was a nobleman who served in the Tavanes regiment under Kings Charles IX, Henry III, and Henry IV. The Israelites Gathering the Manna in the Desert. During this period he was introduced to engravings after the masters of the Italian Renaissance; this work inspired in him such enthusiasm that he made two attempts to visit Rome, both abortive, between 1619 and 1622. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), one of the greatest French painters, rationally synthesized the diverse tendencies of French and Italian art. Apollo in Love with Daphne, painted in 1664 and incomplete upon his death, summarises the strange traits of his final period: the wildness and grandeur of the inanimate, calm and emotionless nature of the human actors, which come directly from the mind of the artist. Poussin was a leading pioneer of the classical French Baroque style. Histoire France, Patrimoine. He does not leave the Eternal City again. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Most were never finished, but experimented with different variants of the same theme. Il est le fils de Jean Poussin (né vers 1555-1560), né d'une petite famille noble de Soissons et arrivé en Normandie après la prise de Vernon en 1590 pendant les guerres de religion. Above all the painter finds his inspiration in poetic subjects > The Inspiration of the Poet • 1630-1640 : 1st period in Rome. This evolution is obvious in the second version of The Arcadian Shepherds, which is calculated, contemplative and philosophical whilst the first version was much more spontaneous, lively and poetic. About 1622 Poussin executed six large tempera paintings for the Jesuits (none of those survive), and in the following year he received a commission for a painting in a Notre-Dame chapel. The fruits of these studies are apparent in his first great masterpiece, The Death of Germanicus (1627), painted for Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Returns to Paris in December, under pressure from Sublet de Noyers and, indirectly, Louis XIII and Richelieu. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Buy Poussin Prints Now from Amazon. Nicolas Poussin - retrouvez toute l'actualité, nos dossiers et nos émissions sur France Culture, le site de la chaîne des savoirs et de la création. Main source (see bibliography): Another early friend and biographer, André Félibien, reported that "He was busy without cease filling his sketchbooks with an infinite number of different figures which only his imagination could produce." In these paintings, nature takes on a new character: it is no longer orderly and subject to the laws of reason but wild, invading the painting where man occupies an increasingly negligible space. Actif aussi en Italie à partir de 1624. With Moses saved from the Water, painted in 1651, Poussin succeeds in translating the commotion of the women discovering the child through the contrast of the drapery. Une image plus petite avec putto musicien se trouvait probablement à gauche de ce fragme… Biography Charles de la Vallée Poussin's father was the professor of mineralogy and geology at the University of Louvain for around 40 years. Anthony Blunt, Art et Architecture en France, 1500-1700, Editions Macula, 2000, Your email address will not be published. We see the influence of Descartes in the mathematical construction of the space in the painting, for example in The Holy Family on the Steps dating from 1648, where the whole space is organised in geometric terms. The Landscape with Diana and Orion is an allegory on the origin of clouds. Following a serious illness, he marries Anna Maria Dughet, the daughter of a French chef who cared for him, whose brother, Gaspard Dughet, later becomes his pupil. Nicolas Poussin : biographie, actualités et … Poussin served his apprenticeship in Rome by making copies after antiquity and the masters of the Renaissance and by studying the works of the Classicizing artists of his own day, including the Bolognese painter Domenichino. Nicolas Poussin - Nicolas Poussin - The final years: Poussin continued to paint three or four pictures a year in the 1650s, despite being increasingly ill. Find an in-depth biography, exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the latest news, and sold auction prices. Poussin was born in Normandy, in Les-Andelys, in 1594. After a period of real poverty, he receives several significant orders, including an altarpiece for Saint-Pierre: The Martyrdom of Saint Erasmus, a large-scale work which is not very well received. Sometimes painting traditional religious subjects such as The Massacre of the Innocents, above all he finds his inspiration in poetic subjects, acquiring, for example, an original and very classical style in the painting held at the Louvre Museum, The Inspiration of the Poet, and in tragic subjects like Tancred and Erminia. 1594 (June) https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nicolas-Poussin, The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Art Encyclopedia - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, National Gallery of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Nicolas Poussin - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). About 1612 Poussin departed for Paris, where he studied anatomy, perspective, and architecture and worked with the minor masters Georges Lallemand and Ferdinand Elle. He also comes back to mythological accounts, but from a different perspective: he wishes to express a truth, evoking the major eternal forces. 1630 Biographie, portrait pour connaître la vie, naissance et mort d'un personnage historique, de notre histoire, célèbre ou méconnu. Aged 17, Poussin left Normandy for bigger and better things, namely the bustling metropolis of Paris. Biography of POUSSIN, Nicolas (b. His earliest works are characterized by a sensuality and colouristic richness indebted to Venetian art, especially to Titian, but by 1633 Poussin had repudiated this overtly seductive style in favour of a more rational and disciplined manner that owed much to the Classicism of Raphael and antiquity. In their emotional intensity these pictures reveal an ardent Romanticism in the young Poussin that he would soon suppress. Biographie de Nicolas Poussin. He tries, and fails, to go to Rome on two occasions, then returns to Paris where he meets Philippe de Champaigne and works with him for the Queen Mother at the Luxembourg Palace. Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France). Nicolas Poussin's early biographer was his friend Giovanni Pietro Bellori, who relates that Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy and that he received an education that included some Latin, which would stand him in good stead. Biographie courte de Nicolas Poussin - Nicolas Poussin est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, grande figure du classicisme. Your email address will not be published. His early sketches attracted the notice of Quentin Varin, who passed some … See available paintings, works on paper, and prints and multiples for sale and learn about the artist. Nicolas Poussin naît en juin 1594 au hameau de Villers dans l'actuelle commune des Andelys. He is charged with creating two altarpieces, painting two large allegoric canvases for Richelieu and decorating the Grande Galerie of the Louvre Palace, even though he has become used to small canvases. 1633 Having more or less become a recluse, working more to satisfy his need to paint than to please others, his final works reflect internal soul-searching. The same applies to the second series of the Seven Sacraments, which was completed for Chantelou between 1644 et 1648 and is considerably more solemn than the first (the Eucharist) is a good example as one of the most serious works by Poussin). 1637 in a more rigorous manner: The Adoration of the Magi, The Adoration of the Golden Calf or The Crossing of the Red Sea. He was schooled in many subjects, including Latin and letters, but showed a talent for drawing (he was apparently scolded by his teachers for doodling in his books). POUSSIN, NICOLAS (1594 – 1665). Biographies, portraits, vie et oeuvre des personnages célèbres ou méconnus de France. Around 1633-1634, his reputation reaches Paris and his paintings are sent by Barberini to Cardinal Richelieu. Falling victim to intrigues on the part of Parisian painters, including Simon Vouet, he decides to return to Rome in September 1642. The composition is stripped back, constructed using horizontals and verticals only. Discovers painting when Quentin Varin comes to Les Andelys to complete a series of altarpieces for the church. 1624 Having worked pretty much all of his life in Rome, Poussin is renowned for his paintings that depicted mythology and ancient history. The years of 1630-1640 correspond to the first real period of Poussin, immersed in an atmosphere of passionate and erudite archaeological studies, during which he paints Rinaldo and Armida, or The Arcadian Shepherds – Et In Arcadia Ego, which is influenced by the poetry of Titian. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. • 1642-1650 : The most fruitful period of his career, creating the most perfect expressions of French classicism, where he seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible > 2d version of The Arcadian Shepherds, 2d set of Seven Sacraments, Eliezer and Rebecca… Vénus et Mercure (1626-27).